Utah Science Core Curriculum Biology mrdeming weebly uploads 3 0 7 3 3073064 utah state Utah Science Core Curriculum Earth Systems Science, Biology, Physics and Chemistry Introduction Science is a way of knowing, a process for gaining knowledge and understanding of the natural world The Science Core Curriculum places emphasis on understanding and
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ore Curriculum Biology Introduction Science is a way of knowing,
a process for gaining knowledge and und...
Utah Science Core Curriculum Biology Introduction Science is a way of knowing,
a process for gaining knowledge and understanding of the natural world.
It is not enough for students to read about science
They should observe,
formulate and test hypotheses,
active experiences throughout the instruction of the science curriculum.
The Science Core describes what students should know and be able to do at the end of each course.
and revised by a community of Utah science teachers,
and an advisory committee representing a wide diversity of people from the community.
The Core reflects the current philosophy of science education that is expressed in national documents developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Academies of Science.
This Science Core has the endorsement of the Utah Science Teachers Association.
Organization of the Science Core The Core is designed to help teachers organize and deliver instruction.
Elements of the Core include the following: Each grade level begins with a brief course description.
The INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES (ILOs) describe the goals for science skills and attitudes.
and are an integral part of the Core that should be included as part of instruction.
The SCIENCE BENCHMARKS describe the science content students should know.
Each grade level has three to five Science Benchmarks.
The ILOs and Benchmarks intersect in the Standards,
Objectives and Indicators.
A STANDARD is a broad statement of what students are expected to understand.
Several Objectives are listed under each Standard.
An OBJECTIVE is a more focused description of what students need to know and be able to do at the completion of instruction.
they are judged to have mastered that Standard at that grade level.
An INDICATOR is a measurable or observable student action that enables one to judge whether a student has mastered a particular Objective.
but they can help guide classroom instruction.
SCIENCE LANGUAGE STUDENTS SHOULD USE is a list of terms that students and teachers should integrate into their normal daily conversations around science topics.
These are not vocabulary lists for students to memorize.
Seven Guidelines Were Used in Developing the Science Core Reflects the Nature of Science: Science is a way of knowing,
a process for gaining knowledge and understanding of the natural world.
The Core is designed to produce an integrated set of Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) for students.
students will: • Use science process and thinking skills.
• Manifest science interests and attitudes.
• Understand important science concepts and principles.
• Communicate effectively using science language and reasoning.
• Demonstrate awareness of the social and historical aspects of science.
• Understand the nature of science.
Coherent: The Core has been designed so that,
the science ideas taught within a particular grade level have a logical and natural connection with each other and with those of earlier grades.
Efforts have also been made to select topics and skills that integrate well with one another and with other subject areas appropriate to grade level.
there is an upward articulation of science concepts,
This spiraling is intended to prepare students to understand and use more complex science concepts and skills as they advance through their science learning.
Developmentally Appropriate: The Core takes into account the psychological and social readiness of students.
It builds from concrete experiences to more abstract understandings.
many educators may have mistakenly thought that students understood abstract concepts (such as the nature of the atom) because they repeated appropriate names and vocabulary (such as “electron” and “neutron”).
The Core resists the temptation to describe abstract concepts at inappropriate grade levels
it focuses on providing experiences with concepts that students can explore and understand in depth to build a foundation for future science learning.
Encourages Good Teaching Practices: It is impossible to accomplish the full intent of the Core by lecturing and having students read from textbooks.
The Science Core emphasizes student inquiry.
making and testing hypotheses,
and communicating conclusions.
The Core is designed to encourage instruction with students working in cooperative groups.
not just those who have traditionally succeeded in science classes.
The vignettes listed on the Utah Science Home Page at http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/science for each of the Core standards provide examples,
that demonstrate that excellent teaching of the Science Core is possible.
Comprehensive: The Science Core does not cover all topics that have traditionally been in the science curriculum
it does provide a comprehensive background in science.
the Core seeks to empower students rather than intimidate them with a collection of isolated and forgettable facts.
Teachers are free to add related concepts and skills,
but they are expected to teach all the standards and objectives specified in the Core for their grade level.
Relevance of science to other endeavors enables students to transfer skills gained from science instruction into their other school subjects and into their lives outside the classroom.
Encourages Good Assessment Practices: Student achievement of the standards and objectives in this Core is best assessed using a variety of assessment instruments.
Performance tests are particularly appropriate to evaluate student mastery of science processes and problem-solving skills.
Teachers should use a variety of classroom assessment approaches in conjunction with standard assessment instruments to inform their instruction.
may be located on the Utah Science Home Page http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/science.
Observation of students engaged in science activities is highly recommended as a way to assess students’ skills as well as attitudes in science.
The nature of the questions posed by students provides important evidence of students’ understanding of and interest in science.
Intended Learning Outcomes for Biology The Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) describe the skills and attitudes students should learn as a result of science instruction.
They are an essential part of the Science Core Curriculum and provide teachers with a standard for evaluation of student learning in science.
Instruction should include significant science experiences that lead to student understanding using the ILOs.
The main intent of science instruction in Utah is that students will value and use science as a process of obtaining knowledge based upon observable evidence.
Use Science Process and Thinking Skills a.
events and patterns and record both qualitative and quantitative information.
Use comparisons to help understand observations and phenomena.
and sequence data according to given criteria.
Select and use appropriate technological instruments to collect and analyze data.
Plan and conduct experiments in which students may: • Identify a problem.
• Formulate research questions and hypotheses.
• Predict results of investigations based upon prior data.
• Identify variables and describe the relationships between them.
• Plan procedures to control independent variables.
• Collect data on the dependent variable(s).
• Select the appropriate format (e.g.,
diagram) and use it to summarize the data obtained.
check it for accuracy and construct reasonable conclusions.
• Prepare written and oral reports of investigations.
Develop and use classification systems.
simulations and metaphors to describe and explain natural phenomena.
Manifest Scientific Attitudes and Interests a.
events and processes that can be answered through scientific investigation.
Accept responsibility for actively helping to resolve social,
ethical and ecological problems related to science and technology.
Demonstrate Understanding of Science Concepts,
Know and explain science information specified for the subject being studied.
Give instances of how technological advances have influenced the progress of science and how science has influenced advances in technology.
Understand the cumulative nature of scientific knowledge.
Recognize contributions to science knowledge that have been made by both women and men.
Understand that science investigations use a variety of methods and do not always use the same set of procedures
understand that there is not just one "scientific method." c.
Science findings are based upon evidence.
Understand that scientific conclusions are based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and that they will continue to do so in the future.
Understand the use of the term "theory" in science,
and that the scientific community validates each theory before it is accepted.
the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence.
Understand that various disciplines of science are interrelated and share common rules of evidence to explain phenomena in the natural world.
Understand that scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include logical thinking,
replicability of results and honest and ethical reporting of findings.
Biology Core Curriculum The Biology Core Curriculum has two primary goals: (1) students will value and use science as a process of obtaining knowledge based on observable evidence,
and (2) students’ curiosity will be sustained as they develop and refine the abilities associated with scientific inquiry.
Theme The Biology Core has three major concepts for the focus of instruction: (1) the structures in all living things occur as a result of necessary functions.
Inquiry Biology students should design and perform experiments,
and value inquiry as the fundamental scientific process.
They should be encouraged to maintain an open and questioning mind,
to pose their own questions about objects,
and come to their own conclusions as they read,
The results of their experiments need to be compared for reasonableness to multiple sources of information.
Good science instruction requires hands-on science investigations in which student inquiry is an important goal.
Teachers should provide opportunities for all students to experience many things.
Students should investigate living organisms from each kingdom.
Relevance Biology Core concepts should be integrated with concepts and skills from other curriculum areas.
and mathematics skills should be emphasized as integral to the instruction of science.
Personal relevance of science in students’ lives is an important part of helping students to value science and should be emphasized at this grade level.
Developing students' writing skills in science should be an important part of science instruction in biology.
Providing opportunities for students to gain insights into science related careers adds to the relevance of science learning.
Biology provides students with an opportunity to investigate careers in genetics,
Resources related to careers in science may be found at the Utah Science Home Page at http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/science .
Character Value for honesty,
and teamwork should be emphasized as an integral part of science learning.
safety and concern for self and others,
and environmental stewardship.
and reporting is an essential component of science.
Instructional Resources This Core was designed using the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Project 2061: Benchmarks For Science Literacy and the National Academy of Science’s National Science Education Standards as guides to determine appropriate content and skills.
The Utah Science Home Page at http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/science is an ongoing report of resources available and aligned to the Biology Core Curriculum.
Safety Precautions The hands-on nature of science learning increases the need for teachers to use appropriate precautions in the classroom and field.
Proper handling and disposal of chemicals is crucial for a safe classroom.
The chemistry described in biology can be accomplished using safe household chemicals and microchemistry techniques.
Appropriate Use of Living Things in the Science Classroom It is important to maintain a safe,
humane environment for animals in the classroom.
Student collections should be done under the guidance of the teacher with attention to the impact on the environment.
The number and size of the samples taken for the collections should be considered in light of the educational benefit.
but rather observed and described using photographs,
or written descriptions to be included in the student’s collection.
and chemicals in the classroom.
The Most Important Goal Science instruction should cultivate and build on students’ curiosity and sense of wonder.
Science instruction should be as thrilling an experience for a student as opening a rock and seeing a fossil,
tracing and interpreting a pedigree,
or observing the affects of some chemical on the heartbeat of daphnia.
and it is not just for those who will choose science-related careers.
In a world of rapidly expanding knowledge and technology,
all students must gain the skills they will need to understand and function responsibly and successfully in the world.
Biology Core Curriculum Science Benchmark Ecosystems are shaped by interactions among living organisms and their physical environment.
either staying in a state of dynamic balance or shifting to a new state of balance.
and energy flows from outside sources through the system.
STANDARD I: Students will understand that living organisms interact with one another and their environment.
Arrange components of a food chain according to energy flow.
Describe strategies used by organisms to balance the energy expended to obtain food to the energy gained from the food (e.g.,
migration to areas of seasonal abundance,
switching type of prey based upon availability,
Compare the relative energy output expended by an organism in obtaining food to the energy gained from the food (e.g.,
energy expended in migration of birds to a location with seasonal abundance compared to energy gained by staying in a cold climate with limited food).
industrialized societies’ greater use of fossil fuel in food production,
human health related to food product).
water) in a variety of biological communities and ecosystems.
Explain how water is a limiting factor in various ecosystems.
Distinguish between inference and evidence in a newspaper,
or Internet article that addresses an issue related to human impact on cycles of matter in an ecosystem and determine the bias in the article.
Evaluate the impact of personal choices in relation to the cycling of matter within an ecosystem (e.g.,
impact of automobiles on the carbon cycle,
impact on landfills of processed and packaged foods).
Formulate and test a hypothesis specific to the effect of changing one variable upon another in a small ecosystem.
diversity) within an ecosystem.
Investigate an ecosystem using methods of science to gather quantitative and qualitative data that describe the ecosystem in detail.
Science language students should use:
Cells perform a variety of functions necessary to maintain homeostasis and life.
The structure and function of a cell determines the cell's role in an organism.
STANDARD II: Students will understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells that are made of molecules,
Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e.,
solvent properties) contribute to maintenance of cells and living organisms.
Objective 2: Describe the flow of energy and matter in cellular function.
Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic cells.
Illustrate the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through photosynthesis (e.g.,
by using light energy to combine CO2 and H2O to produce oxygen and sugars) and respiration (e.g.,
by releasing energy from sugar and O2 to produce CO2 and H2O).
Objective 3: Investigate the structure and function of cells and cell parts.
Describe cell theory and relate the nature of science to the development of cell theory (e.g.,
built upon previous knowledge,
use of increasingly more sophisticated technology).
Describe how the transport of materials in and out of cells enables cells to maintain homeostasis (i.e.,
Describe the relationship between the organelles in a cell and the functions of that cell.
Experiment with microorganisms and/or plants to investigate growth and reproduction.
Science Benchmark Structure relates to function.
Organs and organ systems function together to provide homeostasis in organisms.
The functioning of organs depends upon multiple organ systems.
STANDARD III: Students will understand the relationship between structure and function of organs and organ systems.
Objective 1: Describe the structure and function of organs.
Diagram and label the structure of the primary components of representative organs in plants and animals (e.g.,
Compare the structure and function of organs in one organism to the structure and function of organs in another organism.
Research and report on technological developments related to organs.
Objective 2: Describe the relationship between structure and function of organ systems in plants and animals.
Describe the structure and function of various organ systems (i.e.,
nervous) and how these systems contribute to homeostasis of the organism.
leaves to roots) and describe the relationship of structure to function in the relationship.
Compare the structure and function of organ systems in one organism to the structure and function in another organism (e.g.,
chicken to sheep digestive system
fern to peach reproductive system).
Science language students should use:
Science Benchmark Information passed from parent to offspring is coded in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules.
the sequence of DNA differs between each organism and each species.
The genetic information in DNA provides the instructions for assembling protein molecules in cells.
Asexual reproduction provides offspring that have the same genetic code as the parent.
STANDARD IV: Students will understand that geneti